Evidence of Validity of the The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S ) in the argentinian context

Hernán Furman, Mark D Griffiths, Amir H Pakpour, Hugo Simkin


The Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) is one of the most widely psychometric instruments used for assessing the fear of COVID-19 in the international context. The present study aims to analyze the evidence of validity based on the internal structure, in relation to other variables and reliability of the FCV-19S among a sample of 223 adults from Argentina aged between 21 and 85 years (M = 50.96 years; SD = 16.57) and of both sexes (males = 30.5%; females = 69.5%). Results indicated very good values in terms of its reliability (ω = .94; α = .93). The confirmatory factor analysis yields adequate values in terms of the validity criteria based on the internal structure of the scale, providing empirical support for a unidimensional model. Likewise, the associations between the FCV-19S and the Brief Fear of Death Scale provide evidence of validity related to other variables. The study demonstrates that the FCV-19S is a valid and reliable instrument to interpret the fear of COVID-19 in the local context, although future studies should continue to investigate its psychometric properties.



fear of covid-19, FCV-19S, adaptation, validation, Argentina.


Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C.-Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8

Alyami, M., Henning, M., Krägeloh, C. U., & Alyami, H. (2020). Psychometric Evaluation of the Arabic Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00316-x

Ato, M., López-García, J. J., & Benavente, A. (2013). Un sistema de clasificación de los diseños de investigación en psicología. Anales de Psicología, 29(3), 1038–1059. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.29.3.178511

Aydin, N., & Yurdakul, G. (2020). Assessing countries’ performances against COVID-19 via WSIDEA and machine learning algorithms. Applied Soft Computing, 97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2020.106792

Borio, C. (2020). The Covid-19 economic crisis: dangerously unique. Business Economics, 55(4), 181–190. https://doi.org/10.1057/s11369-020-00184-2

Broche-Pérez, Y., Fernández-Fleites, Z., Jiménez-Puig, E., Fernández-Castillo, E., & Rodríguez-Martin, B. C. (2020). Gender and Fear of COVID-19 in a Cuban Population Sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00343-8

Cavalheiro, F. R. S., & Sticca, M. G. (2020). Adaptation and Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00415-9

Caycho-Rodríguez, T., Vilca, L. W., Cervigni, M., Gallegos, M., Martino, P., Portillo, N., Barés, I., Calandra, M., & Burgos Videla, C. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 scale: Validity, reliability and factorial invariance in Argentina’s general population. Death Studies, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1836071

Chang, K.-C., Hou, W.-L., Pakpour, A. H., Lin, C.-Y., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Psychometric Testing of Three COVID-19-Related Scales Among People with Mental Illness. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00361-6

Chi, X., Chen, S., Chen, Y., Chen, D., Yu, Q., Guo, T., Cao, Q., Zheng, X., Huang, S., Hossain, M. M., Stubbs, B., Yeung, A., & Zou, L. (2020). Psychometric evaluation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale among Chinese population. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/t5jne

Cohen, J., & Kupferschmidt, K. (2020). Countries test tactics in ‘war’ against COVID-19. Science, 367(6484), 1287–1288. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.367.6484.1287

Collett, L.-J., & Lester, D. (1969). The Fear of Death and the Fear of Dying. The Journal of Psychology, 72(2), 179–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1969.10543496

Doshi, D., Karunakar, P., Sukhabogi, J. R., Prasanna, J. S., & Mahajan, S. V. (2020). Assessing Coronavirus Fear in Indian Population Using the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00332-x

Elemo, A. S., Satici, S. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Psychometric Properties of the Ethiopian Amharic Version. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00448-0

Fitzpatrick, K. M., Harris, C., & Drawve, G. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and the Mental Health Consequences in America. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000924

García-Reyna, B., Castillo-García, G. D., Barbosa-Camacho, F. J., Cervantes-Cardona, G. A., Cervantes-Pérez, E., Torres-Mendoza, B. M., Fuentes-Orozco, C., Pintor-Belmontes, K. J., Guzmán-Ramírez, B. G., Hernández-Bernal, A., González-Ojeda, A., & Cervantes-Guevara, G. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 Scale for Hospital Staff in Regional Hospitals in Mexico: a Brief Report. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00413-x

Giordani, R. C. F., Zanoni da Silva, M., Muhl, C., & Giolo, S. R. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 scale: Assessing fear of the coronavirus pandemic in Brazil. Journal of Health Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105320982035

Haktanir, A., Seki, T., & Dilmaç, B. (2020). Adaptation and evaluation of Turkish version of the fear of COVID-19 Scale. Death Studies, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1773026

Huarcaya-Victoria, J., Villarreal-Zegarra, D., Podestà, A., & Luna-Cuadros, M. A. (2020). Psychometric Properties of a Spanish Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale in General Population of Lima, Peru. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00354-5

Iannelli, L., Giglietto, F., Rossi, L., & Zurovac, E. (2018). Facebook Digital Traces for Survey Research: Assessing the Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Facebook Ad–Based Procedure for Recruiting Online Survey Respondents in Niche and Difficult-to-Reach Populations. Social Science Computer Review, 38(4), 462–476. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439318816638

Kline, R. B. (2016). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (4a ed.). The Guilford Press.

Kosinski, M., Matz, S. C., Gosling, S. D., Popov, V., & Stillwell, D. (2015). Facebook as a research tool for the social sciences: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations, and practical guidelines. American Psychologist, 70(6), 543–556. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039210

Kumar, A., & Nayar, K. R. (2020). COVID 19 and its mental health consequences. Journal of Mental Health, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638237.2020.1757052

Kyriazos, T. A. (2018). Applied Psychometrics: Sample Size and Sample Power Considerations in Factor Analysis (EFA, CFA) and SEM in General. Psychology, 09(08), 2207–2230. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2018.98126

Martínez-Lorca, M., Martínez-Lorca, A., Criado-Álvarez, J. J., Armesilla, M. D. C., & Latorre, J. M. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 scale: Validation in spanish university students. Psychiatry Research, 293, 113350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113350

Masuyama, A., Shinkawa, H., & Kubo, T. (2020). Validation and Psychometric Properties of the Japanese Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale Among Adolescents. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00368-z

Menzies, R. E., & Menzies, R. G. (2020). Death anxiety in the time of COVID-19: theoretical explanations and clinical implications. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 13, e19. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1754470X20000215

Montero, I., & León, O. G. (2007). A guide for naming research studies in Psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(3), 847–862. https://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=33770318

Muñiz, J., Elosua, P., & Hambleton, R. K. (2013). Directrices para la traducción y adaptación de los tests: Segunda edición. Psicothema, 25(2), 151–157. https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2013.24

Nhamo, G., Chikodzi, D., Kunene, H. P., & Mashula, N. (2020). COVID-19 vaccines and treatments nationalism: Challenges for low-income countries and the attainment of the SDGs. Global Public Health, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2020.1860249

Nikopoulou, V. A., Holeva, V., Parlapani, E., Karamouzi, P., Voitsidis, P., Porfyri, G. N., Blekas, A., Papigkioti, K., Patsiala, S., & Diakogiannis, I. (2020). Mental Health Screening for COVID-19: a Proposed Cutoff Score for the Greek Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00414-w

Pakpour, A. H., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 and its role in preventive behaviors. Journal of Concurrent Disorders, 2, 58–63. http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/39561

Pang, N. T. P., Kamu, A., Hambali, N. L. B., Mun, H. C., Kassim, M. A., Mohamed, N. H., Ayu, F., Rahim, S. S. S. A., Omar, A., & Jeffree, M. S. (2020). Malay Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Validity and Reliability. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00355-4

Perz, C. A., Lang, B. A., & Harrington, R. (2020). Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale in a US College Sample. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00356-3

Piqueras, J. A., Gomez-Gomez, M., Marzo, J. C., Gomez-Mir, P., Falco, R., Valenzuela, B., & Group, P.-S. C.-19 study. (2020). Validation of the Spanish version of Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its association with acute stress and coping. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-75063/v1

Pradhan, M., Chettri, A., & Maheshwari, S. (2020). Fear of death in the shadow of COVID-19: The mediating role of perceived stress in the relationship between neuroticism and death anxiety. Death Studies, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1833384

Quintero, S., & Simkin, H. (2017). Validación de la Escala de Miedo a la Muerte Abreviada al contexto argentino. Psocial, 3(1), 53–59. https://publicaciones.sociales.uba.ar/index.php/psicologiasocial/article/view/2340

Reznik, A., Gritsenko, V., Konstantinov, V., Khamenka, N., & Isralowitz, R. (2020). COVID-19 Fear in Eastern Europe: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00283-3

Sakib, N., Bhuiyan, A. K. M. I., Hossain, S., Al Mamun, F., Hosen, I., Abdullah, A. H., Sarker, M. A., Mohiuddin, M. S., Rayhan, I., Hossain, M., Sikder, M. T., Gozal, D., Muhit, M., Islam, S. M. S., Griffiths, M. D., Pakpour, A. H., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Psychometric Validation of the Bangla Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Rasch Analysis. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00289-x

Satici, B., Gocet-Tekin, E., Deniz, M. E., & Satici, S. A. (2020). Adaptation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Its Association with Psychological Distress and Life Satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00294-0

Serafini, G., Parmigiani, B., Amerio, A., Aguglia, A., Sher, L., & Amore, M. (2020). The psychological impact of COVID-19 on the mental health in the general population. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 113(8), 531–537. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa201

Soraci, P., Ferrari, A., Abbiati, F. A., Del Fante, E., De Pace, R., Urso, A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00277-1

Tsipropoulou, V., Nikopoulou, V. A., Holeva, V., Nasika, Z., Diakogiannis, I., Sakka, S., Kostikidou, S., Varvara, C., Spyridopoulou, E., & Parlapani, E. (2020). Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of FCV-19S. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00319-8

Tzur Bitan, D., Grossman-Giron, A., Bloch, Y., Mayer, Y., Shiffman, N., & Mendlovic, S. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 scale: Psychometric characteristics, reliability and validity in the Israeli population. Psychiatry Research, 289, 113100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113100

Wakashima, K., Asai, K., Kobayashi, D., Koiwa, K., Kamoshida, S., & Sakuraba, M. (2020). The Japanese version of the Fear of COVID-19 scale: Reliability, validity, and relation to coping behavior. PLOS ONE, 15(11), e0241958. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241958

Winter, T., Riordan, B. C., Pakpour, A. H., Griffiths, M. D., Mason, A., Poulgrain, J. W., & Scarf, D. (2020). Evaluation of the English Version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale and Its Relationship with Behavior Change and Political Beliefs. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00342-9


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Visitas al Abstract:800
PDF (Español (España)):1260
EPUB (Español (España)):64
XML (Español (España)):791

{PSOCIAL} Journal of Research in Social Psychology. Faculty of Social Sciences | University of Buenos Aires (UBA)

ISSN 2422-619X. Semiannual publication (January-June and July-December).
Design: Mae Bermudez

 Jorunal Indexed and listed in:
  • ERIH PLUS (European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • Latindex Catálogo 2.0 (Regional Cooperative Online Information System for Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portuga) [registry]
  • DOAJ (Directory Open Access Journals) [registry]
  • MIAR (Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals) [registry]
  • PSICODOC (Online Bibliographic Database Madrid Official College of Psychologists) [registry
  • RDIUBA (Institutional Digital Repository) [registry]
  • REDIB (Iberoamerican Network for Innovation and Scientific Knowledge) [registry]
  • Open AIRE (Open Access Infraestructure for Research in Europe) [registry
  • Red LatinRev / FLACSO library (Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences) [registry]
  • BINPAR (National Bibliography of Registered Periodicals) [registry]
  • LATINOAMERICANA (Association of Academic Journals of Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • CLASE (Latin-American Citations in Social Sciences and Humanities) [registry]
  • Sherpa Romeo [registry]
  • Basic Nucleus of Argentine Scientific Journals [registry]
  • Mirab@l [registry]
  • Cabells' Journalytics [registry]
  • CIRC (Integrated Classification of Scientific Journals) [registry]
  • AmeliCA [registry]
  • LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [registry]
  • EBSCO (Elton Bryson Stephens Company Information Services) [registry]
  • Malena [registry
  • Sara Network [registry]
  • SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) [registry]
  • Redalyc (Network of Scientific Journals from Latin America and the Caribbean, Spain and. Portuga) [registry]

This journal is licenced under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)