Gender-related tensions throughout the educational process of transnational generations in families of Chinese origin. The case of Cordoba province, Argentina (2019-2021)

Eduardo Rodríguez Rocha

Abstract


This article analyzes the production of the educational experience of a group of families of Chinese origin, from Taiwan and from the People´s Republic of China, settled in the last two decades in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. Through an analytical approach centered on intra-family agreements and collective supports for school accompaniment, this research argues that the educational accompaniment of children and adolescents of Chinese origin has not been established at a collective level. Thus, it is stated that, in the absence of collective ethnic-migratory structures of a communitarian nature that help school accompaniment, the various resources of each domestic environment play a significant role regarding the school experiences here analyzed, reproducing inequality processes associated with the conditions of the family's social origin. This article distinguishes two logics of family organization that unequally shape the educational experiences: the traditional or rigid and the emancipatory or mobile. This study is based on ethnographic research in which interviews were conducted mainly with Chinese women heads of household in three different periods: during the months prior to the outbreak of the Sars-COV2 pandemic in Argentina (January 2020), the period of remote learning during lockdown (March 2020-June 2021), and the return to in-person learning in schools (July-December 2021).

Keywords


Transnational Generation, Women of Chinese origin, Córdoba province.

References


Abrahamsen Bente y Ida Drange (2015). Ethnic Minority Students' Career Expectations in Prospective Professions: Navigating between Ambitions and Discrimination. Sociology, Vol. 49, No. 2, 252-269.

Alam, F. (2008). Actitudes y representaciones sociolingüísticas en la interacción entre la comunidad inmigrante china y la comunidad local, IX Congreso de la Sociedad Argentina de Lingüística, Santa Fe.

Alba, Richard y Holdaway, Jennifer (2013). The Children of Immigrants at School: Conclusions and Recommendations, en The Children of Immigrants at School Book Subtitle: A Comparative Look at Integration in the United States and Western Europe. Cap 7. NYU Press.

Alba, Richard y Nee, Victor. (2003). Remaking the American mainstream: assimilation and contemporary immigration. Harvard Univ. Press.

Alexander, K., D. Entwisle y C. Horsey (1997). From First Grade Forward: Early Foundations of High School Dropout, Sociology of Education. American Sociological Association, vol. 70, 87-107.

Arzubiaga, A. E., Noguerón, S. C. y Sullivan, A. L. (2009). The Education of Children in Im/migrant Families. Review of Research in Education, Vol. 33, 246-271.

Bhattacharyya, M. (2005). Community support for supplementary education en E. W. Gordon, B. L. Bridglall, & A. S. Meroe (Eds.), Supplementary education: The hidden curriculum of high academic achievement (pp. 249–272). Rowman and Littlefield.

Beheran, Mariana (2009). Niños, niñas y jóvenes bolivianos y bolivianas en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Escolaridad y experiencias formativas en el ámbito familiar. Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos Nº 67, 375-396. CEMLA, Bs. As.

Bogado, L (2012). Migraciones internacionales. Influencia de la Migración China en el Río de la Plata. Tesis de maestría en Relaciones Internacionales. La Plata: UNLP, 2012.

Bordegaray, G.; Novaro, G. (2004). Diversidad y desigualdad en las políticas de Estado. Reflexiones a propósito del proyecto de Educación Intercultural y Bilingüe en el Ministerio de Educación. Cuadernos de Antropología Social, n. 19, 101-119.

Botton, Flora (2019). Ensayos sobre China. Una antología, El Colegio de México.

Byun, M. S. (1990). Bilingualism and bilingual education: The case of the Korean immigrants in the United States. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 82, 109–128.

Castiglione, C. (2007). Inmigración y Escuela Media. El caso de la Inmigración Coreana y su inserción en la escuela pública. Revista CLAROSCURO del CEDU. “Inmigración y Escuela Media. El caso de la inmigración coreana y su inserción en la escuela pública”. Año VI, N° 6, Diciembre de 2007. Centro de Estudios sobre Diversidad Cultural- Universidad Nacional de Rosario.

Cerruti, M. y Binstock, G. (2012). Los estudiantes inmigrantes en la escuela secundaria. Integración y Desafíos. UNICEF.

Cerrutti, M., & Parrado, E. (2015). Intraregional migration in South America: trends and a research agenda. Annual Review of Sociology, 41, 399-421.

Chen, Feiyin (2019). Una pequeña reflexión para la integración. Published by Mandarin Lab. Video, Youtube, [online], 25.08.2019 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jCMeeGBuTKQ.

Courtis, Corina (2004). Korean Immigrants in Text and Talk: A Discourse-centered Approach to the Social Processing of Korean Immigration in Argentina. Korean Social Science Journal, XXXI No. 1, 113-136.

Crozier, Gill (2009). South Asian Parents' Aspirations versus Teachers' Expectations in the United Kingdom. Theory Into Practice, The Policies of Immigrant Education: Multinational Perspectives, Vol. 48, No. 4, 290-296.

Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao (2009). Invisible and visible language planning: ideological factors in the family language policy of Chinese immigrant families in Quebec. Lang Policy, 8, 351–375.

Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao y Mary Maguire (2007). Portraits of self and identity constructions: three chinese girls’ trilingual textual Powers, (pp. 517–554). en D. Thiessen and A. Cook-Sather (eds.), International Handbook of Student Experience in Elementary and Secondary School.

D’hondt, Fanny Lore Van Praag, Peter A. J. Stevens y Mieke Van Houtte (2015). Do Attitudes toward School Influence the Underachievement of Turkish and Moroccan Minority Students in Flanders? The Attitude-Achievement Paradox Revisited. Comparative Education Review, Vol. 59, No. 2, 332-354.

De Heusch, Félicien (2016). Amo a mi país, sigo hablando en creole, pero tomo fernet con coca y como el asado: Una etnografía de los migrantes haitianos y de la venta de “bijouteria” en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina. Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, 2016.

Denardi, L. (2015). Ser chino en Buenos Aires. historia, moralidades y cambios en la diáspora china en Argentina. Horizontes antropológicos 43, 79-103.

(2016). Casetes, redes y banquetes “Prácticas comerciales de chinos, taiwaneses y argentinos en Buenos Aires. Etnografías Contemporáneas, v. 2, n. 1, 134-160.

Diez, M. L, Thisted, S. y Martinez M (2015). Educación intercultural como política pública: el análisis de la experiencia de la provincia de Buenos Aires”. Boletín de Antropología y Educación. Año 6, Nro. 9 – 201, 163-168.

Diez, M.; Novaro G. (2020). Experiencias educativas y laborales en contextos de movilidad territorial en América Latina. PERIPLOS. Revista de Investigación sobre Migraciones; vol. 4, 5-11.

Drouhot, Lucas y Victor Nee (2019). Annual Review of Sociology Assimilation and the Second Generation in Europe and America: Blending and Segregating Social Dynamics Between Immigrants and Natives. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 45, 177–99.

Ebrey, Patricia (1981). Women in the Kinship System of the Southern Song Upper Class, en Richard W. Guisso and Stanley Johannesen (eds.) Women in China, Current Directions in Historical Scholarship, Philo Press.

ENMA (2021). Anuario Estadístico Migratorio de Argentina 2020. Buenos Aires: RIOSP DDHH –CONICET.

Feliciano, C. (2020). Immigrant selectivity effects on health, labor market, and educational outcomes, Anual Review of Sociology, 46(1), 315-334.

Fernandez-Kelly, M. P. (1995) “Towanda’s triumph: Social and cultural capital in the transition to adulthood in the urban ghetto” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 18(1), 89–111.

Fouron, G. y Glick-Schiller, N. (2002). The generation of identity: redefining the second generation within a transnational social field, en Peggy Levitt y Mary Waters. The changing face of home. The transnational life of the second generation. Capítulo 6. The Russel Sage Foundation.

Fukuyama, F. (2001). Social Capital, Civil Society and Development, Third World Quarterly, 22, 7-20.

González, Carmen (2014). La colectividad coreana y sus modos de incorporación en el contexto de la ciudad de Córdoba. Colección Tesis. Centro de Estudios Avanzados (CEA). Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.

Hinnenkamp, V. (2003). Mixed Language Varieties of Migrant Adolescents and Discourse of Hybridity. en J. N. Jørgensen (ed.), Bilingualism and Social Change: Turkish Speakers in North Western Europe (pp. 12–39). Multilingual Matters.

Ichou Mathieu, M. Oberti y Waine, O. (2014). Immigrant Families' Relationship with the School System: A Survey of Four Working-Class Suburban High Schools. Population E. Vol. 69, No. 4, 557-597.

INDEC. Censo Nacional de Población 2010. Disponible en: .

Jeon, Yun Sil (1999). Los problemas lingüísticos de la comunidad coreana en la Argentina‖, en Actas del Congreso Internacional de Políticas Lingüísticas para América Latina, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 319-329.

Kao, G., and M. Tienda (1995) Optimism and Achievement: The Educational Performance of Immigrant Youth. Social Science Quarterly 76:1-19.

Kaufman, Julia (2004). The Interplay Between Social and Cultural Determinants of School Effort and Success: An Investigation of Chinese-Immigrant and Second-Generation Chinese Students' Perceptions Toward School. Social Science Quarterly, A Special Issue: Social Science Examines Education Vol. 85, No. 5, 1275-1298.

Kim, C. H. (1992). Korean schools in California: A description of their role and function in maintaning Korean language and culture, University of the Pacific.

Kim Youb (2008). The Effects of Integrated Language-Based Instruction in Elementary ESL Learning. The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 92, No. 3, 431-451.

King, K. A., & Fogle, L. (2006). Bilingual parenting as good parenting: Parents’ perspectives on family language policy for additive bilingualism. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 9(6), 695–712. doi:10.2167/beb362.0

Kleidermacher, Gisele (2017). Representaciones sociales de migrantes senegaleses en Buenos Aires (1995-2014), Revista Mexicana de Sociología, v. 79, n. 1, 65-92.

Kristeva, Julia (2016) Mujeres chinas. Entre Mao y Tel Quel. Capital Intelectual.

Ley de Educación Nacional (LEN) (2006) Nº 26.206. 14 de diciembre del 2006. Buenos Aires. República Argentina.

Lee, Jennifer, y Min Zhou (2015). The Asian American Achievement Paradox. Russell Sage Foundation

(2014). The success frame and achievement paradox: the costs and consequences for Asian Americans. Race and Social Problems, 6 (1), 38-55.

Levitt, Peggy (2004). Redefining the Boundaries of Belonging: The Institutional Character of Transnational Religious Life, Sociology of Religion, Vol. 65, No. 1, 1-18.

Li, G. (2007). Home environment and second language acquisition: The importance of family capital. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 28(3), 285–299.

(2006). Biliteracy and trilingual practices in the home context: Case studies of Chinese-Canadian children. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 6 (3), 355–381.

Louie, Vivian (2001). Parents´ aspirations and investment: The role of social class in the educational experiences of 1.5 and second-generation chinese americans. Harvard Educational Review. Vol 71. N°3 438-474.

(2006). Second-Generation Pessimism and Optimism: How Chinese and Dominicans Understand Education and Mobility through Ethnic and Transnational Orientations. The International Migration Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 537-572.

Ma, Y. Y. (1945). Effects of attendance at Chinese language schools upon San Francisco children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California.

Matute-Bianchi, M (1986). Ethnic Identities and Patterns of School Success and Failure Among Mexican-Descent and Japanese-American Students in a California High School: An Ethnographic Analysis. American Journal of Education 95, 233-255.

Mau Wei-Cheng (1997). Parental influences on the high school students' academic achievement: A comparison of Asian immigrants, Asian Americans, and White Americans. Psichology in the Schools, 34 (3), 267-277.

Mera, Carolina (1998). La inmigración coreana en Buenos Aires. Multiculturalismo en el espacio urbano. Eudeba.

Moll, L. C. (1992). Bilingual classroom studies and community analysis: Some recent trends. Educational Researcher, 21(3), 20–24.

Novaro, Gabriela (2012). Niños inmigrantes en Argentina. Nacionalismo escolar, derechos educativos y experiencias de alteridad. RMIE, V. 17, N. 53, 459-483.

Ogbu, J. U., y Simon, H. D. (1998). Voluntary and involuntary minorities: A cultural-ecological theory of school performance with implication for education. Anthropology and Educational Quarterly, 29, 155–188.

Pennycook, A. (2002). Mother tongues, literacy and colonial governmentality. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 154, 11–28.

Portes, A. y Zhou, M. (1993). The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants among Post 1965 Immigrant Youth, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 74-98.

Raleigh, Elizabeth y Kao, Grace (2010). Do Immigrant Minority Parents Have More Consistent College Aspirations for Their Children?. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 91, No. 4, 1083-1102.

Rodríguez Rocha, Eduardo (2020). Cosmopolitas subalternos. Comerciantes globales no hegemónicos en Córdoba. Taller Riso.

(2017). Prácticas económicas de migrantes chinos y senegaleses en la ciudad de Córdoba. REMHU, Rev. Interdiscip. Mobil. Hum., Brasilia, v. 25, n. 49, apr, 215-231.

(2019). Percepciones de bienestar de migrantes sikh en Córdoba. Revista Mexicana de Sociología, Vol. 81, núm. 2, 361-388.

Sartori, Florencia (2019). Él es chino; yo soy castellana”: identidad lingüística en una escuela de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Lengua y migración / Language and Migration 11:1, 31-50

Shanahan, Michael (2000). Pathways to Adulthood in Changing Societies: Variability and Mechanisms in Life Course Perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 26, 667-692

Solís, Patricio (2013). Desigualdad vertical y horizontal en las transiciones educativas en México. Estudios Sociológicos, vol. 31, núm. extraordinario, 63-93

Thomas, Kevin (2012). Race and School Enrollment among the Children of African Immigrants in the United States. The International Migration Review, Vol. 46, No. 1, 37-60.

Trabalón, C. (2021). Migración haitiana en ciudades de Argentina: Experiencias espaciales, fronteras y racialización. Estudios Sociales Contemporáneos, (25), 119–144.

(2020). Trayectorias en clave transnacional. Generación, juventud(es), educación y familia en la definición de los proyectos migratorios de haitianos y haitianas hacia la Argentina. REHMU 28 (60).

Tse, L. (2001). Resisting and reversing language shift: Heritage-language resilience among U.S. native biliterates. Harvard Educational Review, 71, 676–706

Wang, X. (1996). A View from Within: A Case Study of Chinese Heritage Community Language Schools in the United States.

Watkins, D., y Biggs, J. (2001). Teaching the Chinese learner: Psychological and pedagogical perspectives. Hong Kong: CERC, The University of Hong Kong.

Wong, Bernard (1985). Family, Kinship, and Ethnic Identity of the Chinese in New York City, with Comparative Remarks on the Chinese in Lima, Peru and Manila, Philippines. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 16, No. 2, 231-254.

Wong, M. G. (1990). The education of White, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese students: A look at High School and Beyond. Sociological Perspectives, 33, 355-374.

Xie, Y., y Goyette, K. A. (2004). The American people, Census 2000: A demographic portrait of Asian Americans. Russell Sage Foundation Press

Yan, Yu (2011). Reconstruction of Gender Role in Marriage: Processes among Chinese Immigrant Wives. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 42, No. 5, 651-668.

Yang, F. (2002). Chinese Christian transnationalism: Diverse networks of a Houston church. en Religions across borders: Transnational religious networks. Editado por by H. R. Ebaugh y J. Chafetz, 175-204, Altamira.

Zhou, Min (2004). Are asian americans becoming "white?". Contexts, Vol. 3, No. 1, 29-37

Zhou, Min y Kim, Susan (2006). Community Forces, Social Capital, and Educational Achievement: The Case of Supplementary Education in the Chinese and Korean Immigrant Communities. Harvard Educational Review Vol. 76 No. 1, 1-29.

Zuo, J. (2003). From revolutionary comrades to gendered partners: Marital construction of breadwinning in post-Mao urban China. Journal of Family Relations , 24, 314-337.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Estadísticas
Visitas al Abstract:156
PDF (Español (España)):98
EPUB (Español (España)):29
XML (Español (España)):116



{PSOCIAL} Journal of Research in Social Psychology. Faculty of Social Sciences | University of Buenos Aires (UBA)

ISSN 2422-619X. Semiannual publication (January-June and July-December).
 
Design: Mae Bermudez
 

 Jorunal Indexed and listed in:
  • ERIH PLUS (European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • Latindex Catálogo 2.0 (Regional Cooperative Online Information System for Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portuga) [registry]
  • DOAJ (Directory Open Access Journals) [registry]
  • MIAR (Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals) [registry]
  • PSICODOC (Online Bibliographic Database Madrid Official College of Psychologists) [registry
  • RDIUBA (Institutional Digital Repository) [registry]
  • REDIB (Iberoamerican Network for Innovation and Scientific Knowledge) [registry]
  • Open AIRE (Open Access Infraestructure for Research in Europe) [registry
  • Red LatinRev / FLACSO library (Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences) [registry]
  • BINPAR (National Bibliography of Registered Periodicals) [registry]
  • LATINOAMERICANA (Association of Academic Journals of Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • CLASE (Latin-American Citations in Social Sciences and Humanities) [registry]
  • Sherpa Romeo [registry]
  • Basic Nucleus of Argentine Scientific Journals [registry]
  • Mirab@l [registry]
  • Cabells' Journalytics [registry]
  • CIRC (Integrated Classification of Scientific Journals) [registry]
  • AmeliCA [registry]
  • LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [registry]
  • EBSCO (Elton Bryson Stephens Company Information Services) [registry]
  • Malena [registry
  • Sara Network [registry]
  • SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) [registry]
  • Redalyc (Network of Scientific Journals from Latin America and the Caribbean, Spain and. Portuga) [registry]
 

This journal is licenced under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)