Social Support on Facebook, Self Esteem and Self Transcendence within The Five Factor Model of Personality

Charles Benjamin Warter, Paula Fernández Lopes, Spencer Varada


As human relations change the way they develop social support, social networks have become crucial to human interaction and overall subjective welfare. Critical social networks, such as Facebook, have developed hundreds upon millions of virtual communities and influence the way individuals interact with one another. This literature review aims to explore the following positive and negative implications of the use of Facebook. a)  Facebook plays a negative role in the users' welfare and self-esteem. b) Facebook is also used as a communication tool to positively impact ongoing social support or increase the users' feeling of self-worth. c) Facebook can influence one's ability to detach from the external definitions of self and dissolve the rigid link between oneself and others, enabling transcendence, leading to an increased sense of self-worth. d) Lastly, the five-factor model of personality can be used to explore online and offline behavior and its impact on Self Esteem. Results of these final dimensions indicated that both (i) Neuroticism and (ii) Extraversion were positively associated with Facebook behavioral addiction, whereas (iii) Openness to Experience, (iv) Agreeableness, and (v) Conscientiousness were negatively associated with a Facebook behavioral addiction. These positive associations suggest thematic relevance and are noteworthy for future academic research. This review serves as a foundation for assessing current findings and offering recommendations for future exploration, encouraging the academic community to conduct further research as the new era of technology unfolds.


Personality, Self-Transcendence, Self Esteem, Social Support, Facebook

Full Text:



Ackerman, B. J. (1979). The development and validation of self-presentation scales. Dissertation for the University of Florida.

Adams, D.K., Ammons, R.B., Butler, J.M., Cattell, R.B., Harlow, H.F., Maier, N.R., Mowrer, O. H., Snygg, D., Wickens, D.D., Wittenborn, J.R. (1954). Learning Theory Personality Theory and Clinical Research. The Kentucky Symposium. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. London: Chapman & Hall, Limited.

Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality –A Psychological Interpretation. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Arda, Z., & Fernández, C. (2012). Social media, autoimagen e imagen de la marca. Ad Comunica, (3), 231-234.

Barroso Morales, M. (2012). La auto-presentación en el perfil de la red social Facebook. Trampas de la Comunicación y la Cultura. La identidad en el entorno on-line.

Buss, H.A., Plomin, (1984) Temperament: Early Developing Personality Traits, University of Texas. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers Hillsdale, New Jersey, London.

Buss, M., (1995) Evolutionary Psychology: A New Paradigm for Psychological Science Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological 6(1) 1-30.

Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1998). On the Self-Regulation of Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Cerna Urbina, L. J & Plasencia Saldaña, F. B (2012). Influencia de la Red Social Facebook en la formación de la autoestima en las alumnas de 1º, 2º, 3º, 4º y 5º años de Educación Secundaria de la Institución Educativa Particular “María de Nazaret” de Cajamarca. Universidad Del Norte. Perú.

Costa, P. T. & McCrae, R. R. (1980). Still stable after all these years: personality as a key to some issues in adulthood and old age. En P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim, (Eds.). Life span development and behaviour. (3rd. ed.) (pp. 65-102). New York, NY: Academic Press.

Crocker, J., & Park, L. E. (2004). The costly pursuit of self-esteem. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 392-414.

Crocker, J., & Wolfe, C. T. (2001). Contingencies of self-worth. Psychological Review, 108(3), 593-623.

Cupani, M,. & Pautassi, A,. (2013). Facetas de Personalidad Relacionadas con el Consumo elevado de Alcohol en Estudiantes Universitarios de la provincia de Córdoba, Personality and Individual Differences 11(1) 42-52.

Dolan, Emily A., "Thank You For Being a Friend: Women's Self-Disclosures and Social Support on Facebook" (2012). Media Studies - Theses. Paper 2. On:

Dykman, B. M. (1998). Integrating cognitive and motivational factors in depression: Initial Tests of a Goal-orientation approach. 74(1), 139-158.

Ellison N., Steinfield C. and Lampe C. (2007). The Benefits of Facebook “Friends:” Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication1143–1168.

Facebook (2014). Company info: Facebook newsroom. news- Retrieved June 30, 2014, from

Figueredo, A,. Sefcek, J,. D., Jones,(2006) The ideal romantic partner personality, Personality and Individual Differences 41(3) 431-441

Forest, A.L., & Wood, J.V.(2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological Science, 1-7.

Gonzales, Amy L. & Hancock, Jeffrey T. (2010). Mirror, Mirror on my Facebook Wall: Effects of Exposure to Facebook on Self-Esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 0 (0), 1-5.

González Ramírez, Mónica Teresa; Landero Hernández, René Díaz Rodríguez, Cecilia Lourdes (2013) Propiedades psicométricas de una escala para evaluar el apoyo social a través de las redes sociales. Acta de investigación psicol [online], 3 (3), 1238-1247.

Graziano, W. G. & Tobin, R. M. (2009). Agreeableness. Handbook of individual differ-ences in social behavior (46–61). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Grieve, R (2014) When Facebook is easier than face-to-face: Social support derived from Facebook in socially anxious individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 59. pp. 102-106. ISSN 0191-8869.

Harfuch, M. F. H., Murguía, M. P. P., Lever, J. P. & Andrade, D. Z. (2009). La adicción a Facebook relacionada con la baja autoestima, la depresión y la falta de habilidades sociales. Psicología Iberoamericana, 18 (1), 6-18.

Joinson, A.N. (2003). Understanding the psychology of Internet behaviour: Virtual worlds, real lives. Palgrave Macmillan.

Kalpidou, M., Costin, D., & Morris, J. (2011). The relationship between Facebook and the well-being of undergraduate college students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14 (4), 183-189.

Larsen, R.J., & Buss, D.M. (2009). Personality psychology: Domains of knowledge about human nature. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Maslow A. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation: Psychological Review 50(4), 370-396.

Mehdizadeh, S. (2010). Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking; 13(4), 357-364.

Mruk, C. J. (2006). Self-esteem research, theory, and practice: Toward a positive psychology of self-esteem. Springer Publishing Company.

Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook?. Personality and Individual Differences, 52(3), 243-249.

Nabi, R., Prestin, A. & So, J. (2013). Facebook Friends with (Health) Benefits? Exploring Social Network Site Use and Perceptions of Social Support, Stress, and Well-Being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 16 (10), 721-728.

Papacharissi, Z. (Ed.). (2010). A Networked self: identity, community, and culture on social network sites. Routledge.

Pervin, L. A. & John, O. P. (1997). Personality Theory and Research. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Pettijohn, T. F. II, LaPiene, K. E., Pettijohn, T. F., & Horting, A. L. (2012). Relationships between Facebook Intensity, Friendship Contingent Self-Esteem, and Personality in U.S. College Students. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 6 (1).

Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2000). The Rosenberg self-esteem scale: Its dimensionality, stability, and personality correlates in Estonian. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 701-715.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Schultz, D. (1976). Theories of Personality. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

Siibak, A. (2009). Constructing the Self through the Photo selection-Visual Impression Management on Social Networking Websites. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 3(1), article 1.

Simkin, H., Etchezahar, E., & Ungaretti, J. (2012) Personalidad y Autoestima desde el modelo y la teoría de los cinco factores. Facultad de Ciencias Sociales – UNLZ – Año VII, Número 17, V2 (2012), pp. 171-193.

Tarazona Luján, R. Z. (2013). Variables Psicológicas Asociadas al uso de Facebook: Autoestima y Narcisismo en Universitarios. Universidad Católica de Perú. Perú.

Wang, J. L., Jackson, L. A., Zhang, D. J., & Su, Z. Q. (2012). The relationships among the big five personality factors, self-esteem, narcissism, and sensation-seeking to Chinese University students’ uses of social networking sites (SNSs). Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2313–2319.

Whitley, B. E., & Gridley, B. E. (1993). Sex role orientation, self-esteem, and depression: A latent variables analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 363-369.

Wilson, R., (2012) A Review of Facebook Research in the Social Sciences Perspectives on Psychological Science, Universidad de Washington, 7 (3) 203-220.

William, J. (1890). The principles of psychology. Harvard UP, Cambridge, MA.

Wong, W (2012). Faces on Facebook: A study of self-presentation and social support on Facebook. Discovery–SS Student E-Journal, 1 (9), 184-214.

Zelensky, M., J., & Larsen R., J,. (2002) Predicting the Future: How Affect-Related Personality Traits Influence Likelihood Judgments of Future Events. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28(7) 1000-1010.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Visitas al Abstract:550

{PSOCIAL} Journal of Research in Social Psychology. Faculty of Social Sciences | University of Buenos Aires (UBA)

ISSN 2422-619X. Semiannual publication (January-June and July-December).
Design: Mae Bermudez

 Jorunal Indexed and listed in:
  • ERIH PLUS (European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • Latindex Catálogo 2.0 (Regional Cooperative Online Information System for Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portuga) [registry]
  • DOAJ (Directory Open Access Journals) [registry]
  • MIAR (Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals) [registry]
  • PSICODOC (Online Bibliographic Database Madrid Official College of Psychologists) [registry
  • RDIUBA (Institutional Digital Repository) [registry]
  • REDIB (Iberoamerican Network for Innovation and Scientific Knowledge) [registry]
  • Open AIRE (Open Access Infraestructure for Research in Europe) [registry
  • Red LatinRev / FLACSO library (Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences) [registry]
  • BINPAR (National Bibliography of Registered Periodicals) [registry]
  • LATINOAMERICANA (Association of Academic Journals of Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • CLASE (Latin-American Citations in Social Sciences and Humanities) [registry]
  • Sherpa Romeo [registry]
  • Basic Nucleus of Argentine Scientific Journals [registry]
  • Mirab@l [registry]
  • Cabells' Journalytics [registry]
  • CIRC (Integrated Classification of Scientific Journals) [registry]
  • AmeliCA [registry]
  • LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [registry]
  • EBSCO (Elton Bryson Stephens Company Information Services) [registry]
  • Malena [registry
  • Sara Network [registry]
  • SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) [registry]
  • Redalyc (Network of Scientific Journals from Latin America and the Caribbean, Spain and. Portuga) [registry]

This journal is licenced under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)