Cognitive and emotional empathy in relation to five paranormal experiences

Alejandro Parra

Abstract


Empathy is an important component of social cognition that contributes to the ability to adaptively understand and respond to the emotions of others, succeed in emotional communication, and promote pro-social behavior. However, there are not enough studies on empathy in relation to psychic experiences; As a matter of fact, many psychic claimants appear to act more empathetic than telepathic. Here two specific hypotheses are tested: People who have telepathic experiences, aura vision experiences, a sense of presence, experience as healers and apparitional experiences have a greater capacity for cognitive empathy (perspective taking and emotional understanding) and 2) Empathy emotional (Empathic concern and positive empathy) than non-experimenters. The results show that the experienced group obtained higher empathy scores than the inexperienced ones. Scores on the four empathy subscales were also significantly higher for the non-experienced. Thus, people who affirm that such psychic experiences seem to have a great capacity to recognize the emotions of another, related to their imitative capacities. The ability to use cognitive and emotional empathy in an integrated way seems important in many circumstances, such as healing practitioners' experiences or aura vision experiences.

Keywords


empathy; anomalous experience

References


Alvarado, C. S. (1994). Individual differences in aura vision: Relationship to visual imagery and imaginative-fantasy experiences. European Journal of Parapsychology, 10, 1-30.

Alvarado, C. S., & Zingrone, N. (1987). Observations of lumi­nous phenomena around the human body: A review. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 54, 38‑60.

Appelbaum, S. A. (1993). The laying on of healing: Personality patterns of psychic healers. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 57(1), 33-40.

Baltz, J., & Lindgren, C. E. (1997). Aura awareness: What your aura says about you. Nevada City, CA: Blue Dolphin.

Batson, C. D., Sympson, S. C., Hindman, J. L., Decruz, P., Todd, R. M., & Weeks, J. L., (1996). "I've been there, too": Effect on empathy of prior experience with a need. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 474-482.

Borysenko, J. (1985). Healing motives: An interview with David McClelland. Advances: The Journal of Mind-Body Health, 2, 29-41.

Cameron, T., & Roll, W. G. (1983). An investigation of apparitional experiences. Theta, 11, 74-78.

Cheyne, J. A., Newby-Clark, I. R. & Rueffer, S. D. (1999). Sleep paralysis and associated hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences. Journal of Sleep Research, 8, 313–17.

Cooperstein, M. A. (1992). The myths of healing: A summary of research into transpersonal healing experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 86, 99-133.

Eisenberg, N., and Strayer, J. (1987). Critical issues in the study of empathy. En N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp.3-13). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Davis, M. (1996). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

DiLalla, L. F., Hull, S. K., & Dorsey, J. K. (2004). Effect of gender, age, and relevant course work on attitudes toward empathy, patient spirituality, and physician wellness. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 16, 165-170.

Donovan, J. (1997). Toward a model relating empathy, charisma, and telepathy. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 11, 455-471.

Gault, B. A., & Sabini, J. (2000). The roles of empathy, anger, and gender in predicting attitudes toward punitive, reparative, and preventative public policies. Cognition and Emotion, 14, 495-520.

Hoffman, M. L. (1987). The contribution of empathy to justice and moral judgment. En N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its deveiopment (pp.7-80). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Hogan, R. (1969). Development of an empathy scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 307-316.

Hollin, C. (1994). Forensic (criminological) psychology. In A. Colman (Ed.), Companion encyclopedia of psychology (pp. 1231-1253). London, England: Routledge.

Huber, J.T. & MacDonald, D.A. (2012). An investigation of the relations between altruism, empathy, and spirituality. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 52(2), 206–221.

Kennedy, J. E., Kanthamani, H., & Palmer, J. (1994). Psychic and spiritual experiences, health, well-being, and meaning in life. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 353-383.

Klein, K. J. K., & Hodges, S. D. (2001). Gender differences, motivation, and empathic accuracy: When it pays to understand. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 720-730.

Kristeller, J. L., & Johnson, T. (2005). Cultivating loving kindness: A two-stage model of the effects of meditation on empathy, compassion, and altruism. Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science, 40, 391-408.

Lawrence, E. J., Shaw, P., Baker, D., Baron-Cohen, S., and David, A. S. (2004). Measuring empathy: Reliability and validity of the Empathy Quotient. Psychological Medicine, 34, 911–919.

Lennon, R., & Eisenberg, N. (1987). Gender and age differences in empathy and sympathy. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 195-217). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

López-Pérez, B., Fernández, I., & Abad, F. J. (2008). TECA. Test de Empatía Cognitiva y Afectiva. Madrid, Spain: Tea Ediciones.

Mestre, V., Frias, D., & Samper, P. (2004). La medida de la empatía: Análisis del Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Psicothema, 16, 255-260.

Omdahl, B. L. (1995). Cognitive appraisal, emotion, and empathy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Osis, K. (1986). Apparitions old and new. En K. R. Rao (Ed.), Case studies in parapsychology (pp. 74-86). Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

Palmer, J. (1979). A community mail survey of psychic experiences. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 73(3), 221-251.

Parra, A. (2006). “Seeing and feeling ghosts”: Absorption, fantasy proneness, and healthy schizotypy as predictors of crisis apparition experiences. Journal of Parapsychology, 70, pp. 357-372.

Parra, A. (2009) Variables cognitivas y perceptuales en la experiencia del déjà vu. Acta Psiquiátrica y Psicológica de América Latina, 55, 29-36.

Parra, A. (2010a). Aura vision as a hallucinatory experience: Its relation to fantasy proneness, absorption, and other perceptual maladjustments. Journal of Mental Imagery, 34, 43-54.

Parra, A. (2010b) Out-of-body experiences and hallucinatory experiences: A psychological approach. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29(3), 211-224.

Parra, A. (2010c). Aura vision as a hallucinatory experience: Its relation to fantasy proneness, absorption, and other perceptual maladjustments Journal of Mental Imagery, 34(3&4), 49-64.

Parra, A. & Sciacca, C. (2017). Empatía y pensamiento mágico en la formación de la alianza terapéutica en psicólogos y tarotistas. Revista de Psicoterapia, 28, 149-164.

Pérez-Albéniz, A., Paúl, J., Etxeberría, J., Montes, M. P., & Torr, E. (2003). Adaptación del Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) al español. Psicothema, 15, 267-272.

Preston, S. D., & de Waal, F. B. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioral Brain Sciences, 25, 1–71.

Rankin, K. P., Kramer, J. H., & Miller, B. L. (2005). Patterns of cognitive and emotional empathy in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Cognitive Behavioral Neurology, 18, 28–36.

Ring, K. & Rosing, C. J. (1990). The Omega Project: An empirical study of the NDE-prone personality. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 8, 211-239.

Sagi, A., and Hoffman, M. (1976). Empathic distress in the newborn. Developmental Psychology, 12, 175-176.

Ungerer, J. A. (1990). The early development of empathy. Motivation and Emotion, 14, 93–106

Sanchez, R. (1989). Empathy, diversity, and telepathy in mother-daughter dyads: An empirical investigation utilizing Rogers' conceptual framework. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 3(1), 29-44.

Staun, E. (1987). Commentary on Part I. En N. Eisenberg and J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 103-115), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Thalbourne, M. (1982). A Glossary of Parapsychology. London, England: Heinemann.

Toussaint, L. & Webb, W. (2005). Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Empathy and Forgiveness. Journal of Social Psychology, 145(6), 673-685.

Whiten, A. (Ed.). (1991). Natural theories of mind: Evolution, development and simulation of everyday mind-reading. Oxford, England: Blackwell.

Wilson, S. C., & Barber, T. X. (1983). The fantasy-prone personality: Implications for understanding imagery, hypnosis, and parapsychological phenomena. En A. A. Sheik (Ed.), Imagery: Current theory, research, and applications (pp. 340-387). New York, NY: Wiley.

Wispé, L. (1986). The distinction between empathy and sympathy: To call forth a concept, a word is needed. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 314–321.

Wispé, L. (1987). History of the concept of empathy. En N. Eisenberg and J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 17–37). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Zahn-Waxler, C., Friedman, S. L., & Cummings, E. M. (1983). Children’s emotions and behaviors in response to infants’ cries. Child Development, 54, 1522–1528.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.



Estadísticas
Visitas al Abstract:1659
PDF (Español (España)):1858



{PSOCIAL} Journal of Research in Social Psychology. Faculty of Social Sciences | University of Buenos Aires (UBA)

ISSN 2422-619X. Semiannual publication (January-June and July-December).
 
Design: Mae Bermudez
 

 Jorunal Indexed and listed in:
  • ERIH PLUS (European Reference Index for the Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • Latindex Catálogo 2.0 (Regional Cooperative Online Information System for Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain and Portuga) [registry]
  • DOAJ (Directory Open Access Journals) [registry]
  • MIAR (Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals) [registry]
  • PSICODOC (Online Bibliographic Database Madrid Official College of Psychologists) [registry
  • RDIUBA (Institutional Digital Repository) [registry]
  • REDIB (Iberoamerican Network for Innovation and Scientific Knowledge) [registry]
  • Open AIRE (Open Access Infraestructure for Research in Europe) [registry
  • Red LatinRev / FLACSO library (Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences) [registry]
  • BINPAR (National Bibliography of Registered Periodicals) [registry]
  • LATINOAMERICANA (Association of Academic Journals of Humanities and Social Sciences) [registry]
  • CLASE (Latin-American Citations in Social Sciences and Humanities) [registry]
  • Sherpa Romeo [registry]
  • Basic Nucleus of Argentine Scientific Journals [registry]
  • Mirab@l [registry]
  • Cabells' Journalytics [registry]
  • CIRC (Integrated Classification of Scientific Journals) [registry]
  • AmeliCA [registry]
  • LILACS [registry]
 

This journal is licenced under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)